Sodium Nitrite is an inorganic compound with chemical formula NaNO2 and as the sodium salt of nitrous acid HNO2. It forms white to slight yellowish crystalline powder in pure state. Sodium nitrate is hygroscopic and very soluble in water. It can be found in nature in several vegetables, such as spinach, parsley, lettuce, broccoli, curly kale, and asparagus. It also can be found in human body to control bacteria in the stomach and prevent gastroenteritis.
Sodium nitrite can be manufactured by reacting sodium hydroxide with nitrogen monoxide and nitrogen dioxide. The product from this process is sodium nitrite that diluted in water. To obtain crystalline sodium nitrite, it the solution undergoes to next stage which is evaporation. Sodium nitrite can be decomposed to sodium dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and oxygen when it heated at high temperature. Also in laboratory scale, sodium nitrite can be used to destroy excess sodium azide.
- Sodium Nitrite Injection: Sodium nitrite injection is indicated for sequential use with sodium thiosulfate for the treatment of acute cyanide poisoning that is judged to be life-threatening. When the diagnosis of cyanide poisoning is uncertain, the potentially life-threatening risk associated with Sodium Nitrite is injected. Sodium nitrite is an antidote for cyanide poisoning. Cyanide poisoning can be rapidly fatal. When hydrogen cyanide gas or large doses are taken, toxicity occurs within a few seconds, and death occurs within minutes. With smaller doses, toxicity occurs within minutes. Sodium nitrite is generally used in conjunction with sodium thiosulfate, and often amyl nitrite, in the treatment of cyanide poisoning. Cyanide has a high affinity for ferric ions, and reacts readily with the ferric ion of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase. Sodium nitrite reacts with haemoglobin to form methaemoglobin, and cyanide preferentially binds to methaemoglobin, restoring cytochrome oxidase activity. As cyanide dissociates from methaemoglobin, it is converted to the relatively non-toxic.
- Safety : While this chemical will prevent the growth of bacteria, it can be toxic in high amounts for animals, including humans. Sodium nitrite is an irritant to the eyes, lungs and skin, is toxic when consumed and has the potential to explode when heated. If sodium nitrite is defanged by preventing it from becoming a nitrosoamine, the risks associated with it are minimal. Although it is toxic, the FDA has classified it as generally recognized as safe. The fatal dose of this chemical is between 22 to 23 mg per kilogram of body weigh